HUBS1401 Human Bioscience

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b. The Australian Immunisation Handbook (Dept.

Discuss Mary’s reasons for getting the tetanus booster according to 2017 guidelines of health.

Three wound observation observations based on physiological basis

The three wounds are characterized by observations that indicate and explain the reason for their existence.

Discuss the physiological basis of your first observation.

c. Discuss what the physiological basis is for the second observation.

d. Discuss what the physiological basis is for the third observation.

Fever: Development and benefits

What caused Mary fever?

Discuss two ways that fever can be beneficial.

Possible transmission routes and sources of contamination

Name one source of contamination that is endogenous and describe the mode of transmission to the new host.



Describe the additional benefits Augmentin brings, including the role of the major ingredients.


Clostridium, also known as Clostridium tetani and a bacterium, can infect wounds when they are exposed to dirt or soil. This rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium can cause tetanus.

Mary was bitten by Clostridium tetani after she worked in her garden. This could have made her more susceptible to the soil as well as the bacterium C. tetani.

Tetanus can be caused by two neurotoxins that the bacterium releases, tetanolysin (both neurotoxins) and tetanospasmin.

Mary is 50 years old, so she should get the tetanus booster vaccination, especially if it has been 10 years since her last vaccine.

Sometimes, even a booster administered before the injury was sustained is not enough to prevent tetanus.

The concentration of antibodies against tetanus in Mary’s blood can be increased by a tetanus booster shortly after an injury. Mary’s immune system will then be able to fight a Clostridium pneumonia infection.

When an injury is sustained, the acute inflammation response kicks in.

The wound site releases a variety of biochemicals that try to regulate the pathogens and restore balance.

The injury triggers an acute inflammatory response, which causes the wound to become hot and red.

The complement system components, histamines prostaglandins, and some kinins are all responsible for inflammation and are released at injury site.

Combining these compounds with some cytokinins can increase blood flow, causing the edges to appear reddish.

Because nitric dioxide plays a role as a vasodilator, the capillaries close to the cut are dilated to increase blood flow.

Prostaglandins E1 & E2 increase vascular permeability so that neutrophils are able to escape from the capillaries into surrounding tissue.

A rise in temperature at the injury site causes cells to metbolize more quickly, making the edges appear hot (Craft (2015)).

c. The area around the injury is swelling.

This condition is also known by the name edema.

This fluid fills the spaces between tissue and can cause pain.

The pain can reduce movement, which allows the patient to recover quicker from an injury (Marieb Hoehn (2014)).

d. Mary develops a foul-smelling, purulent discharge from the wound.

A clear sign of infection is a discharge of this type. This is why healthcare staff sent a swab to culture the wound and identify the pathogen (Bowler Duerden Armstrong, 2001).

An infection causes the immune system to increase the amount of exudate in the body, as well as swelling and pain.

A patient can be treated with an oral antibiotic to combat infection by a pathogen (Craft (2015)).

Fever is another important component of the immune system.

Fever is defined by a core temperature that can be measured rectally at a temperature of 380C or higher.

Mary became ill from the infectious bacteria. The endotoxins caused by the infection triggered the release cytokines interleukin-1 (interleukin-6), and tumor necrosis factors- (TNF) – the three pyrogenic chemicals.

These in turn result in the release endothelin I and cortotrophin-releasing factor as well as prostaglandin E2.

The pyrogens act on the pre-optic areas of the anterior Hypothalamus to cause a fever.

As the body produces and conserves heat, the body’s temperature starts to rise (Craft (2015)).

Fever can prevent the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria.

Fever decreases the availability of three essential minerals, iron, copper and zinc, which are crucial for bacterial replication. This also reduces the rate that bacterial pathogens grow.

Phagocytosis occurs at a faster pace and pathogen elimination occurs faster (Marieb Hoehn (2014)).


Transmission of contaminated hands can be possible, and is responsible for the majority of endogenously transmitted infections.

When the bacteria is spread to an infected site (e.g. a cut), it quickly becomes a pathogen and delays healing.

The wound may need to be treated with antibiotics (Demidova Rice, Hamblin and Herman, 2012).

Exogenous sources of contamination include healthcare workers’ hands or surfaces like door handles and showers contaminated by Staphylococcus.

Mary’s wound was contaminated by soil bacteria. However, wound infections are not a common occurrence.

S. aureus infection are generally endogenous. When exogenous, it is usually due to a lack of hand washing by healthcare staff.

Mary’s wound-swab report confirmed that she had an S.aureus infection.

It was also reported that Amoxycillin sensitive cultures were found in the report.

However, many strains of Staphylococcus have been shown to be resistant beta lactam antibiotics. Augmentin is an anti-biotic that can treat this condition (Bullock Manias 2017).

b. Augmentin combines Clavulenic and Amoxycillin.

Amoxycillin blocks bacteria from forming a peptidoglycan wall.

Due to antibiotic resistance, beta lactam antibiotics have been rendered ineffective against bacteria.

Bacteria was able to synthesize beta lactamase enzyme. This causes beta lactam rings to break down. The antibiotic could not be used because multiplication could still continue.

Because beta lactamase enzyme activity could be blocked by clavulenic, the antibiotic became more effective when added to amoxycillin. The beta lactam could also disrupt the formation of peptidoglycan cell walls.

Augmentin is an effective treatment for S. aureus infection (Bullock Manias 2017).


Wound Microbiology and Associated Methods to Wound Management.

Fundamentals in pharmacology (8th edition).

Frenchs Forest (Australia: Pearson Australia).

Understanding pathophysiology (2nd Australian, New Zealand ed.).

Acute and impaired wound healing: Pathophysiology & Current Methods For Drug Delivery, Part 1. Normal and chronic Wounds: Biology and Causes.

New advances in Skin Wound Car.

(2017 August 1).

Sixth edition of Microbiology & Infection Control for Health Professions (6th Ed.).

Pearson Australia. Melbourne, Victoria.

Pearson Education Limited.

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