PUBH6304 Global Health

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You will need to write an APA-formatted article reviewing a topic related to global health.

In this assessment:

Identify your topic.

Include background information, statistics, and a description of the topic. These include the areas that are most affected globally and the health care issues most frequently associated with the topic.

Please describe the factors that affect health and care delivery in the regions most affected by the topic.

These factors can include culture and tradition as well as politics, economics and social attitude.

Explain the role of altruistic organizations (Peace Corps or Project Hope, religious and not-religious missions, etc.) in health and care practices in the specific area associated with this topic.

Discuss the interventions used to address health care concerns associated with this topic.

You can include both traditional and unconventional interventions.

Explain how local health care practices and decisions (the one most affected by the topic), relate to global health care delivery and health.

This goes beyond best practices. It could also include poor or inefficient health care practices.

You will need to identify evidence-based strategies that are cost-effective, efficient, effective, equitable, and fair for the promotion of wellness and prevention in this area.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Virus Infection (HIV/AIDS), or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, is a range of medical conditions caused by the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). The patient experiences a variety of medical complications as a result of suppressing the immune system.

The patient will likely develop other infections as the disease progresses.

These symptoms, which appear late in the course of the disease, are called AIDS.

HIV is transmitted mainly through unprotected sex, contaminated needles, and blood transfusions from mother to child or breastfeeding.

Because there is no treatment, HIV is a significant public health concern.

There is no cure for the disease.

The course of the disease can be slowed down by antiviral treatment (Liamputtong (2015)).

HIV was reported to have affected 36.7 million people in 2015. The resulting deaths totalled around 1.1million.

Most people who are affected by HIV are from sub-Saharan Africa.

The reason is that the people don’t have enough resources to provide health care.

A lack of nutrition is another problem in this area.

A majority of the population lacks education.

A large portion of the population is unaware of the preventive steps to combat the disease.

According to UNESCO, 52% percent of sub-Saharan Africa’s children were enrolled at primary schools in 2000. This is the lowest percentage of any region.

In 1981, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), United States first recognized AIDS.

Between its discovery and 2014, AIDS is believed to have caused approximately 39 million deaths around the world.

In the United States, approximately 40,000 HIV-infected people were diagnosed in 2015.

According to (2016), gay and bisexual males were most severely affected by the disease.

The USA currently has around 1.2 million HIV infected persons.

The scale of the epidemic is small compared to the population.

But it is highly concentrated among the most severely affected populations.

AIDS-related illnesses have caused around 675,000 deaths in America ( 2016).

Liamputtong (2015) argues that HIV/AIDS is a serious problem in society. It has both a discriminatory and a fatal disease.

The economic consequences of the disease are significant. Religious views have been a source of controversy.

It has attracted the attention of social workers and medical scientists alike, who strive to lower the disease’s impact on the health and social lives.

Mondol & Shitan (2013) claim that HIV/AIDS has been a hindering factor in human culture’s prosperity.

There are many social factors that influence the global HIV prevalence. These include the number of physicians, contraceptive prevalence, adolescents, density, education and schooling levels, as well as certain religious beliefs.

Edwards and Collins (2014) state that HIV-infected black women are more likely to get it from the global perspective, partly because of social determinants within their culture.

There are many social determinants that can make women vulnerable, including their gender, race, geography, economics, and ethnicity.

These barriers can often be found to overlap, resulting in unique results that have the potential to have a significant impact on sexual and general behaviours as well as decision making attitudes.

Social science research has shown that behavioural changes have made it harder to control the infection. It is also clear that individuals’ behaviours toward high infection risk are a result of complex cultural and social contexts.

Cognitive processes and rational elements that alter the decision-making patterns for individuals include cultural beliefs and emotions as well as peer pressure. These factors put communities at risk.

As a result of a variety of obstacles, the progress of appropriate care services in areas most affected by HIV/AIDS is a matter of dispute.

A variety of health care institutions play an important role in HIV prevention and intervention.

These organizations face many challenges, including inadequate funding, client characteristics and limited resources. They also have to deliver effective services.

Although some organisations are well-equipped to serve the needs patients, the communication with the values and beliefs in the communities they serve is a problem.

There are many factors that can hinder the delivery of preventive and care services, including sociocultural, organisational, and individual patient factors.

Technical assistance is needed immediately (Benton, 2015).

Morgan (2013) brought to light the role of faith-based organizations or altruistic groups in providing HIV prevention and mitigation services.

Altruism can be defined as a combination of values, motivations, and practices regarding sexual behaviour that arises out of concern for others.

This includes showing concern for one’s family, friends, community and protecting them from infection.

These organsiations, according to the authors use social theories to change individuals’ behaviours.

While such practices have been practiced by altruistic organizations for many years, their overall response has been controversial.

This is mostly related to the prevention and rejection the use condoms that are in conflict with the national HIV/AIDS responds.

Peace Corps has been a prominent organisation in the global HIV/AIDS prevention field.

Peace Corps volunteers are found in approximately 140 countries. Over the last 50 years, they have shown creativity and ingenuity in addressing major health concerns including HIV/AIDS.

This organisation has played a key role in the HIV/AIDS response.

They work with over 9,000 communities and have served 1.3 million HIV infected persons since 2011.

It combines international efforts to ensure an AIDS-free future.

They collaborate with countries in a joint venture.

They are responsible to manage and implement the responses.

They are responsible for mobilizing bilateral and multilateral partners.

This organisation commemorates World AIDS Day in order to raise awareness and educate.

In 2011, the Peace Corps was responsible for using funds from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief to increase its impact in HIV/AIDS relief in 47 countries.

These Peace Corps offices in these countries are able to use the appropriate resources to improve their HIV/AIDS programs.

Project HOPE, HIV/AIDS Outreach Prevention Education (also known as Project Hope), is another important organisation that aims at improving the lives of HIV/AIDS-infected people and those at high risk.

They provide services such as prevention education, medical management and diagnostics (Abara and al., 2015).

Many interventional strategies have been implemented by organisations around the globe to stop HIV rapid transmission.

These interventions are either implemented to protect the individual and communities or they are part of public health strategies.

In the beginning, preventive programs focused on sexual transmission prevention by behavioural changes.

There is now a lot of evidence that suggests there is a need for intervention strategies to address economic, socio-cultural, and biomedical factors.

Combinational prevention strategies such as these advocate for a holistic approach to address the needs of individuals and communities (Magidson and al., 2017).

Cross and Whiteside (2016) report that HIV/AIDS treatment in sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Africa) is not as effective as it is elsewhere.

Both Africa, and other countries such as the US, have created policies for improving quality of life. They have also dealt with the crisis almost in the same way.

Unfortunately, Africa has been left behind in the fight against HIV due to the lack of advanced resources and the development of other countries.

HIV treatment could have been more effective if all countries in the sub-Saharan region had the same amount of resources.

Watkins Hayes (2014) provides some of the most effective evidence that is cost-effective and equitable, and which promises to be successful against HIV.

Individuals should be able to identify their HIV status. This is the priority intervention.

This can be done through client-initiated HIV testing and counselling, partner and family counseling, children and infant counseling, blood donor counselling and testing, and adequate laboratory services.

A key strategy is to maximise the contribution of the healthcare sector towards HIV prevention.

Education on contraceptive use and family planning would be important.

Another important step towards slowing the spread HIV is nutrition support.

This could be done by providing regular assessments of diet and nutrition, as well as education.

Affordable interventions will only be possible if adequate research is conducted to understand how HIV status is linked to socio-economic and health parameters.

We will conclude the article by pointing out how the increasing prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, (HIV), and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes(AIDS) around the world has impeded human civilisation.

It is a major concern and a critical health problem.

Due to the high incidence of HIV/AIDS in the world, there is an urgent need for effective treatment.

International organisations should increase the number of HIV/AIDS-positive care workers in the most affected countries and provide education and training to help reduce the effects of HIV/AIDS.


An faith-based partnership to combat HIV/AIDS in southern America: Implementation, challenges, lessons learned.

Journal of religion & health, 54(1). 122-133.

HIV exceptionalism.

University of Minnesota Press.

Facing up to AIDS: The socioeconomic impact on southern Africa.

The influence of social factors on HIV risk behaviors. Potential application of structural interventions to stop HIV in women.

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 7(SI2) 141.

HIV and AIDS in America (USA)

Statistics Center

Stigma, Discrimination & Living with HIV/AIDS.

Task Shifting, Delivery of Behavioral Medical Interventions in Resource-Poor Settings: HIV/AIDS Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of Behavioral Medicine (pp.

Springer International Publishing.

A global ecological analysis of data reveals the factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

African health sciences 13(2), 301-310.

Aligning national and faith-based HIV/AIDS prevention efforts?

Factors that impact the HIV/AIDS prevention policy and response of faith based NGOs in Tanzania.

Health policy and planning, Czt018.

Intersectionality in HIV/AIDS sociology: Past, Present, and Future Research Directions.

Annual Review of Sociology, 40. 431-457.

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