PY6301 Clinical Psychology Placement A

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Question:

You can choose one of the clinically relevant topics covered in this module (Alcohol Addiction or Major depressive disorder; ADHD, Anorexia Nervosa and Schizophrenia).

Identify the psychological needs of your client group (e.g.

Based on the relevant research, anorexia is a condition that affects nervosa sufferers.

To address the needs of your client, you will need to complete a literature review.

Clearly identify the client group or population that is relevant, and then, more importantly, identify their psychological needs.

To complete the following literature review, you will need to:

a) Explain the purpose of the review.

That you will be critically reviewing at least two interventions/therapies relevant to your client (e.g.

BPT & Family Therapy

b. Briefly describe the search strategy used in order to find the research articles that will be reviewed.

Keywords used in search, databases used for searching, range of years searched etc.

c) Briefly explain the structure of the literature study.

(If there is a significant controversy in the literature, briefly explain it and state that your research will support one side.

You can also briefly describe three methods that were used to study the effects of CBT on anorexia.

d. Provide a critical assessment of five primary research articles (originals).

e) The critical evaluation should attempt to synthesize research articles.

You should group the articles together, highlighting similar, sometimes contradictory, ideas, findings, etc.

Each article should not be discussed in isolation.

f. Provide a brief discussion followed by a conclusion.

It is also necessary to offer suggestions for future studies.

Answer:

Major Depressive Disorder

Major depressive disorder, commonly known as depression, can be described as a form of mental disorder marked by low moods for at least two weeks. It is often associated with low self esteem, low energy and loss of interest daily activities.

It is the most common cause of suicide. It affects approximately 6% of adults each.

Its symptoms gradually increase and its effects can be devastating not only for the person but also their families and society.

NICE guidelines are a resource that allows healthcare providers and other professionals review and approve effective treatments for this mental condition, which can eventually become a chronic disease if it is not treated properly (Snyder 2013, 2013).

People with Depression Have Psychological Needs

To relieve the symptoms of depression, patients are offered a variety of psychosocial and psychological treatments.

Psychological therapies are proven to be effective in treating long-term depression.

The treatment of depression is not the same for everyone so healthcare professionals can offer different types of treatment.

The psychological needs of those suffering from depression have been the focus of researchers over the past year.

Many psychologists have started to use attachment theory in order to better understand the differences among individuals.

Counselors of psychology should be able to study depression because if they are able to identify the root causes of the problem, the psychologist can then target the mediators with medications to alleviate the symptoms. (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health UK 2013).

There are many indicators of psychological distress like shame, anger and anxiety.

Additionally, depression and avoidance have been shown to be strongly related to interpersonal difficulties and loneliness feelings, as well as a lack of sympathy towards others.

Many of these studies used a pathology-based strategy to investigate maladaptive processes as mediators between depressions and needs.

This makes sense as one reason for seeking advice is to find ways to cope with dysfunction in daily life.

But changing a person’s useless tendencies doesn’t guarantee they will be successful. There are strategies that may have multiple capabilities.

Perfectionism may be a way to protect people who have attachments that don’t adequately respond to their needs.

Some people may believe that perfection will make them more trustworthy, capable and loved by others.

This implies that maladaptive system use is due to an inability or unwillingness to meet basic mental needs (Beesley, et al. 2015).

One of the most significant results from the present study is that basic psychological need satisfaction partially mediates the relationships between attachment anxiety, shame, depression, loneliness, and loneliness. It also fully mediates the relationships between attachment avoidance, shame, depression and loneliness.

Wei and colleagues (2015) also found that attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety are negatively associated with basic psychosocial needs satisfaction.

Journal article 1 – “Tailoring interventions in order to implement recommendations regarding the treatment of older patients with depression: A qualitative research”

Literature Review

This project had two goals: to evaluate tailored interventions’ efficacy and examine elective methods in tailoring.

An increased risk of a never-ending course is present for older patients suffering from depression. The anticipation can be more frightening than the actual outcome.

Evidence shows that social insurance specialists take longer to assess discouragement and initiate satisfactory treatment in elderly patients (Aakhus and al., 2015).

The survey included 13 guidelines on managing depression that were used in clinical practice.

It was helped by a reference group to organize six recommendations that were implemented.

Depression among the elderly is common, with 10-16% of people over 65 years experiencing it. It can be complex, activated through natural, mental, social and emotional elements, and it can affect as many as 10% to 15% of them.

Recognizing the unpredictable nature of the condition, the proposals suggested the need for a coordinated mix of intercessions. This would include pharmacotherapy (psychotherapy), self-improvement techniques and social systems.

Due to the organizational process used in the previous section of this project, only the most important treatment issues were selected.

Even though the proof of depression treatment is established, there are systematic reviews that support the use of antidepressants with psychotherapy for elderly patients suffering from severe depression (Jager, et al. 2017, 2017).

Intervention 2: “Advancing psychotherapy, evidence-based psychological interventions”

Psychological models for mental disorders help guide research into environmental and psychological factors that can elicit or maintain mental disorders and how to treat them.

This paper covers four areas (Goschke (2014)

Psychological models for mental issue have evolved to become increasingly transdiagnostic. Instead of providing clarifications for unitary mental problems, they focus on cognitive endophenotypes at the centre of psychopathology.

Psychotherapy research lacks a consistent structure that can unify the diverse range of models, theories and points of views.

It is important to create new or enhanced psychotherapeutic interventions for children and teens.

The field of psychotherapy research must be expanded to allow for the receipt of vastly improved general wellbeing techniques and medication that can be linked to more patients in an easy and basic manner.

Expanded research on the adequacy, arbitrators of Internet based medicines and emotional wellness instruments could be a promising way forward (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2014).

For finding this article, you can use search strategies

You can use different database search tools like MEDLINE, CINHAL, and PUBMED to find the following keywords: Primary care – Depression – Older Patients – determinants for practice – Tailored Implementation

Organization of the literature search

Research paper 1 shows the effectiveness of the targeted interventions that we developed in a randomized study.

It was determined the most important factors and then selected the appropriate interventions to address these in a process assessment.

There is not enough research to compare different methods of identifying determinants in practice and tailoring implementation strategies. This means that there is a shortage of research on how to improve interventions and what to do next.

This study (Jager, et al. 2014) illustrates how strategies can be evaluated to prioritize interventions given the many possible options.

The research paper 2, provides an in-depth understanding of mental disorders. This includes approaching triggers, enabling conditions, knowing their substrate and mechanisms, and identifying their function.

A theoretical model of the processes involved in disordered behavior and the factors that contribute to them (Emmelkamp and colleagues, 2014).

Critical evaluation

Article 1 Emotion-Focused Treatment Of Depression

An overview of emotion-focused treatment (EFT) for depression is presented, along with a proof.

EFT seeks to establish an affective, empathic and receptive relationship with the person who is suffering from depression.

Flexible feelings can be accessed to transform maladaptive feelings and identify the person for flexible reactions.

Greenberg, 2017, states that this method of changing feelings with feelings can be supported by specific therapeutic techniques that stimulate excitement of emotions (Greenberg).

Many psychologists believe that depression occurs when there is no support or discriminative stimulus.

According to psychologists, depression is caused by a loss of support.

Depression can be caused by loss of close friends or family members in daily life events.

Article 3-The Genetics Of Major Depression

Major depression is the most common psychiatric problem. Inability in the United States is the largest biomedical disease.

The evidence for the hereditary contribution of infection susceptibility is shown in this article.

It is used as evidence for the hereditary heterogeneity in the disorder and the possibility that subtypes exist which represent hereditarily identical conditions (Flint, Kendler 2014).

Article 4: Depression: A Major Problem for Public Health

This article will discuss depression as a crucial issue for general wellness.

It examines writing related to the study on disease transmission, outcomes, as well as counteractive action for depression.

Depression is a common problem with long-lasting effects, especially for women and those who face social difficulties.

It is a significant cause of disability that can result in death by suicide or from increased rates of medical problems.

Many cases are not known and often there is no treatment (Paykel, 2016).

Article 5- The Natural Course of Adolescent Major depressive Disorder: Continuity Into Young adulthood

The article measures the severity and frequency of major depressive disorders in teenagers by comparing their moods between 19-24 years old, those with a history of MDD and those who suffer from depressed mood.

This project included interviews with the participants twice to assess the personality disorders and psychopathology. (Lewinsohn et. al., 2013).

Synthesize the research articles

In intervention 1, a meeting was held with several stakeholders to help inform the implementation of the interventions that will improve the adherence to clinical practice.

This is the draft plan that includes 55 inventions.

These articles show that MDD is the most recognized psychiatric condition and has the largest impact on other mental disorders in the United States.

Intervention 2 will provide an evaluation on the research conducted in various areas, including promising methods, major breakthroughs, gaps, and potential problems.

A basic evaluation is also given elsewhere (Schumann and al., 2013). This was done by the ROAMER group “Biomedical research”.

The ROAMER workgroup “Biomedical research” selected both specialists in both work groups for their academic excellence and for their proficiency in the distinct units of investigation that are expected to accurately portray particular indication areas.

Depression is a serious problem that can have long-lasting effects. It’s especially common in women and those who face social difficulties.

Depression is the number one cause of death, both from suicide and from increased levels of physical problems.

According to psychologists, depression can occur when there is no support or motivation for behavior.

According to Wittchen, Knappe and Schumann (2014), depression is caused by the loss of interest.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from both interventions that there are likely to be similar determinants in practice in other settings, and whether similar interventions could be used in these settings.

This is where the package of customized implementation interventions that was developed was feasible and effective.

In the second intervention, it was stated that while psychological treatments have advanced in recent decades and may be able to help reduce mental disorders more efficiently, they are still not up to par.

To make a more significant contribution in the reduction of mental disorder, psychotherapy research needs to shift from a clinical focus on individuals to more effective public health strategies. Also, treatments that can be used more easily and at a lower cost must be more accessible.

There are four main areas of research in this area:

How to apply internet-based knowledge in routine psychological health care.

Internet-based therapy development

Modern technology and avatars are used

Previous history of medication to lower treatment failures

These will provide more information on the effects of psychotherapy and the types of therapy that are available to each patient.

Refer to

Qualitative study: Tailoring interventions to support the treatment of depression in elderly patients.

International journal on mental health systems, 9(1) 36.

Queensland, Australia: Supportive care, anxiety, depression, and quality of living among newly diagnosed patients with localised, invasive cutaneous melanomas.

Behavior Therapy 47(5), 595-599.

Advancement of psychotherapy and evidence-based psychological intervention.

International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research (23(S1)), 58-91.

The genetics behind major depression.

Emotion-focused therapy for depression.

Psychotherapies 1-12, Person-Centered and Experience-Based.

Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD): A protocol for process evaluation in cluster randomized controlled trial in five European countries.

A program to implement recommendations in primary care for multimorbid patients who have polypharmacy. The programme was evaluated using a cluster randomised study.

Implementation Science, 12(1) 31.

Natural course in adolescent major depression disorder: I. Continuity through young adulthood.

Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 38(1), 56-63.

National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health UK (2013).

Depression: The treatment and management (updated edition) of depression.

British Psychological Society.

Depression: A major problem for the public’s health.

Epidemiology & Psychiatric Science, 15(1): 4-10.

Positive psychology: A brief introduction.

In Flow: The foundations of Positive Psychology (pp.

A review and meta-analysis of major depressive disorders that are associated with impairments in neuropsychological measures for executive function.

Adult attachment, shamefulness, depression, loneliness: The mediation role basic psychological needs satisfaction.

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4). 591.

Introduction to the ROAMER Work Package 5 Consensus Document: The psychological view on mental health and research into mental disorders.

International journal for methods in psychiatric and mental research 23(S1), 15–27.

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