PUBH642 Global Nutrition And Food Security

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This assignment will require you to devise an intervention strategy that addresses the problem of dual burden households. It will preserve traditional food systems in a country of one of these regions: Africa, Asia or South America.

The essay should describe dual burden malnutrition, their determinants and epidemiology. It should also include a summary statistics on food production and a general summary about the national dietary patterns for the country.

The essay should then describe an intervention strategy to reduce the increasing prevalence of dual-burden malnutrition.


The dual-burden nutrition can be described as a combination of stunting, undernourishment (malnutrition), and obesity due to overnutrition (Varela Silva and al., 2012).

The coexistence can be found in the same group and same population sample, i.e.

belonging to a certain location, ethnicity, population (Varela Silva et al. 2012).

Coexistence can also be found in the same person, family, or household (Varela Silva et. al., 2012).

This phenomenon is known as ‘dual burden malnutrition’. It has been observed primarily in low-income, developing and underdeveloped countries (Varela Silva, et al. 2012).

Recent research has highlighted the problems of malnutrition as well as the nutritional dual-burden.

The dual-burdens of malnutrition were observed in low- and middle-income households as well as those from developing countries (Varela Silva and al., 2012).

Underdevelopment of height, and inadequacies of weight are the most common issues associated with malnutrition (Varela Silva, et. al. (2012)).

In infants, obesity can be mistaken as optimal nutrition. This makes it harder to manage the nutritional dual-burden concern (Varela Silva, 2012).

Research has shown that being underdeveloped in height and being overweight contradicts the biological nature of human developmental (Varela Silva, et. al., 2012).

These occurrences are not predicted by traditional food systems or nutritional bases (Varela­Silva, et. al., 2012).

Dual-burden of nutritional disease is a new pandemic that has been affecting people around the world for some time (Popkin et. al. 2012).

Popkin and colleagues (2012) have seen a rapid rise in obesity in the developing and underdeveloped worlds.

Popkin, 2012: The obesity pandemic has seen a dramatic increase in recent years due to Westernization in diet and lifestyle habits.

The Western world has a much lower amount of exercise than the rest of it.

The phenomenon known as “nutrition transition” refers to modified dietary patterns.

Popkin et. al. (2012). A change in diet patterns compared to traditional regional food intake systems can cause altered health patterns that eventually lead to obesity and dual-burden malnutrition.

Popkin, 2012: Research shows that obesity is a result of statistical ratios in sociodemographic data. These include age, race and ethnicity as well as geographic location in subspecific and specific sections of the population.

Popkin et. al. (2012) state that the main reason for this pandemic is the increase in intake of processed foods with low nutritional index and high fat content.

Guyomard, et al. (2012) emphasize the importance of food security worldwide.

Guyomard and colleagues (2012) define food security as “access to adequate, nutritious, safe food for one’s consumption.”

Guyomard, et. al. (2012) stresses that food security can improve a nation’s economic and social status.

Guyomard (2012) stated that worldwide food security was poor.

Undernourishment as well as malnutrition are important in the same way that obesity and overweight is (De Onis & Blossner 2006).

Management of the dual burden of nutrition is based primarily on the existence of both obesity and undernourishment in certain households or populations (De Onis & Blossner 2006).

Because of the contradictions of these pandemics it becomes increasingly difficult to manage the problem (De Onis-Blossner, 2006).

Recent times have seen the rise of health systems that place emphasis on both over and undernutrition (De Onis & Blossner 2006).

Doak and colleagues, 2005.

Doak and colleagues, 2005. Studies have examined the link between dual-burden household incomes and the amount of income in the households.

Scientists believe that undernourishment might be an outcome of overnutrition prevention programmes for individuals within normal weight ranges.

The statistically significant association between obesity, stunting, and a lack of physical activity and skipping breakfast or the first meal of the day is evident in literature (El-Kassas & Ziade 2017, 2017).

One of the most effective strategies for intervention in cases of dual burden households is to assess the lifestyle and dietary habits.

These interventions aim to improve dietary habits and increase physical activity.

In today’s world, every nation and region faces problems with undernutrition, obesity, or dual-burden malnutrition.

Research shows that malnutrition is a complex and multi-layered public health problem. This includes interactions between the country’s agricultural and food production systems, individual decision-making concerns, and the system of environmental and health policy in place.

The article discusses dual-burden Malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa and gives an analysis of the region’s nutrition, food production, dietary patterns, and other issues.

The article also addresses the issues of nutrition transition and preservation of traditional foods systems, which can be used as a means to tackle the dual-burden malnutrition.

National Dietary Patterns And Food Production Statistics for Sub-Saharan Africa

Malnutrition generally refers to a range of nutritional issues, such as undernutrition and obesity, high levels of hunger, deficiencies of micronutrients or overnutrition (Fanzo (2012).

The term malnutrition can be used to describe individuals suffering from malnutrition or a lack thereof.

Children and women should be able to determine their health and nutrition by measuring the amount of calories and protein they need for normal health (Fanzo (2012)).

Hidden hunger, or deficiency, of essential nutrients like vitamins or minerals can cause malnutrition or hunger in most people (Fanzo (2012)

Undernourishment is the primary cause of malnutrition.

The global pandemic for acute malnutrition is called “wasting”.

Wasting refers to the presence of low weight among individuals of a given height (Fanzo 2012).

These cases show a grossly altered ratio between height and weight (Fanzo (2012)).

There is an additional possibility of oedema when there is wasting.

Africa’s children are still wasting high levels and malnutrition has not improved in recent years (Lartey (2008).

While the global hunger indicator (GHI), has improved in Africa over the past decade, it is not showing a great deal of improvement across Sub-Saharan Africa (Lartey (2008)).

Statistically, the Sub-Saharan African Region has seen 100 million undernourished and malnourished.

in 1990-92: 150 million

1995-97; 200 millions approx.

It was 200 million in 1995-97, 2005-07 and 2008, respectively.

It increased to 250 million in 2009 and slowed down to 210 millions in 2010. (Lartey (2008)

It is 34%.

1990-1992; 32% in 2000-02

1995-97, 32% in 1990-92; 2000-02, 30%; 28% in 2002-03.

2005-07, 26% approximately.

2008: 31% in 2009 and 30% in 2010 (Lartey (2008)

The current situation in Sub-Saharan Africa reflects the absence of effective nutrition and food production strategies.

Malnutrition pandemics in Africa have resulted from a lack nutrition in children and maternal nutrition deficits.

In order to eliminate malnutrition, dual-burden nutrition problems, it is important to provide adequate micronutrients to individuals based on their age, height and ethnicity.

The population that includes pregnant women, those who feed their children, as well as older adults, including children and elderly.

These individuals are at greater risk of nutritional disorders due to their physiological nutrient requirements (Lartey (2008)).

Their nutritional requirements are often not met (Lartey (2008)).

Because there are not enough interventions for dual-burden nutrition in most countries, the public health problem is often not adequately addressed (Lartey (2008)).

Lartey (2008). Women are more vulnerable than ever to nutritional problems, particularly those who are pregnant or lactating.

As infants reach their peak growth and development age, they also require nutrition (Lartey (2008)).

A sub-Saharan African study has shown that the climate and environment of these areas make it more susceptible to malnutrition (Lartey 2008).

There are many economic problems that affect the nutrition status of both children and women in these areas (Lartey (2008).

Numerous studies have been published that link the financial and economic statuses in households (Gillespie & Bold 2017).

The interplay among urban, economic, and social lifestyle factors is a key indicator of national nutritional status (Lartey (2008)).

Research has shown that Sub-Saharan Africa is the most susceptible to malnutrition. This could be due to poverty and deficient food systems as well as a lack resources.

In addition to the risks of many diseases and epidemics, the lack of essential infrastructure and limited resources can also lead to shortages.

These regions do not have access to effective health care centers (Fanzo (2012)).

Promoting health and nutrition through the consumption of traditional foods systems and practices is one of the most crucial interventions for these regions. Unfortunately, not many of these interventions are being used (Fanzo (2012)).

The intervention to combat malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa is primarily focused on raising awareness about the importance nutrition plays in human development and growth (Fanzo (2012)).

It is essential to promote nutrition’s physiological basis, which is a crucial factor for development and growth.

In addition, the intervention focuses on the preservation of African traditional food practices.

The intervention also aims at promoting hygiene and best practices for child-feeding (Fanzo (2012)).

Fanzo (2012) states that the intervention must place emphasis on the nation’s agricultural and food production system.

The nutrition transition that has taken place in most countries is one of the main reasons for dual-burden (Fanzo (2012)).

Because of Western food habits, there are concerns about nutrition transition. This means that the local food production has been greatly affected by the altered demands.

Malnutrition pandemics are a common factor in Sub-Saharan Africa.

This intervention targets the nutritional transition and the absence of traditional food systems in the region.

Improving agricultural and food production practices is key to improving the supply of micronutrients to infants (Fanzo (2012)).

According to the Lancet series of undernutrition 2008 (Fanzo (2012), stunting and malnutrition can be linked to poor hygiene, health awareness and supply of micronutrients for mothers and their children.

The success of interventions to eliminate malnutrition from Sub-Saharan Africa’s regions is greatly supported by the food industry.

Fanzo (2012). The evidence from these regions is required to inform the core interventions that must be implemented in these areas (Fanzo 2012).

Lancet studies’ 2008 recommendations also emphasize the need for a multisectoral approach, as well as the inclusion of interventions that meet nutritional requirements (Fanzo (2012)).

The interventional approach covers the entire spectrum of sectors: agriculture, education, health, agriculture and the industry for food production (Fanzo (2012)).

The following strategies should be part of the intervention:

Integration of farming methods and systems that use the combination of aquamarine cultivation, horticulture, rearing of chickens and livestock. All of which are considered consumable nutritional system.

These systems should combine and include techniques for reducing wastage as well as cost-cutting strategies in agriculture to improve the quality of food products (Fanzo (2012)).

These communication systems allow for education and awareness to be spread about nutrition and marketing strategies.

These marketing interventions must focus on strengthening the local food production system and encouraging the consumption and cultivation local micronutrient rich foods (Fanzo (2012)).

Improved techniques for managing products that are harvested after harvest.

These strategies cover the handling, storage, transformation, production, and processing food products.

These strategies reduce loss of nutrients and quality, and protect products’ safety (Fanzo (2012)).

The development of economic and commercial opportunities to increase employment opportunities for women, which help eliminate poverty and lack of resources

Children can also benefit from improvements in their financial and physical health.

Access to many health services, antenatal and postnatal care, lower workloads for pregnant women and mothers, nutrition services, etc.

Improvements in maternal nutrition, education, immunizations & vaccinations, general healthcare services and financial secutrity

Consumption of safe food and water, and better hygiene and health in general communities

The interventions described above are designed to eradicate the main causes of the dual burden malnutrition pandemic.

Fanzo J (2012).

The Nutrition Challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Retrieved at

Agriculture, Food Systems, & Nutrition: Meeting The Challenge.

The Dual Burdens of Malnutrition and the Associated Lifestyle and Dietary Habits in Lebanese School-Age Kids Living in Orphanages in North Lebanon: A Study.

Prevalence of and trends in excess weight among preschool children in developing countries.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (1032-1039).

The dual burden household, and the nutrition transformation paradox.


NOW and THEN: The Global Nutrition Transition. The Pandemic Obesity in Developing Country.

Double burden of Malnutrition: The silent driver of double the burden of disease in low and middle-income nations.

A Nutrition Paradox — In developing countries, underweight and obesity.

Varela-Silva, M.I.

Guyomard H. Darcy–Vrillon B.., Esnouf C. Marin M. Russel M. & Guillou M. (2012) Eating Patterns and Food Systems: Critical Knowledge Requirements for Policy Design and Implementation

Traditional food-processing techniques and preparation methods to improve the bioavailability for micronutrients in plant diets.

Ethiopia Case Study on Empowering Communities with Food-Based Programming, Discussion Paper.

Washington DC International Food Policy Research Institute

Prevalence of stunting in pre-school children: 1990-2020.

From consumerism and empowerment of consumers: The case of consumer-oriented movements in France.

Estimating cardiovascular mortality caused by the Common Agricultural Policy on dietary high-fat fats.

The corn prices are at an all-time high. But what about the food costs?

Can Cannes work in food price volatility and hunger relief?

Body mass index and neighbourhood fast food restaurant concentration are related to car ownership.

Food price volatility and hunger relief – Can Cannes work?

Agric Food Secur 1, 8.

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