PUBH6005 Epidemiology

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Give a brief description of the occupational-related health issue/injury you have chosen.

Please explain how the data was collected.

Discuss one strength and one drawback of the data collection process used in the article.


Topic: The Chronic Effects of Smoking on Employees and Workplaces



(2012) looked at the interactions of personal and occupational risks in the safety and health for a workforce.

The study revealed that many workplace-related injuries, diseases, or other health problems can be multifactorial.

However, when developing intervention strategies, the evidence supporting the role of work and individual risks factors in employee health is often ignored or not used.

Pearson et al.

(2012) state that in order to have a healthier and longer working life, it is important to adopt a comprehensive preventive strategy.

(2012) looked at how personal and occupational risks interact to impact the safety and health of a workforce.

The study used a combination of models to assess personal risk factors like prescribed drugs use, genetical factors and smoking.

The paper will also examine the relationship between smoking and chronic disease in a workplace.

It will also analyze interview as a data collection tool, analyze it and offer recommendations that could help to lower the health risks associated with a workplace.

Brixey and colleagues (2011) suggest that all employees at work should adopt strategies that do not harm or expose their fellow workers’ health.

Smoking is a major adverse health outcome for workers in the workplace.

Secondary data and analysis showed that smoking is an independent and confounder variable and that it has been identified as an effect moderator in the epidemiological occupational relationship.

It was also found that smoking is a risk factor for both primary and second-line smokers, exposing them to chronic diseases like heart disease, cancer, and asthma.

Middleton & Kowalski (2010) pointed out that smoking at work can cause cold working environments, particularly night shifts (Kheifets and al.

2009, cleaning and construction as well as stress at the workplace are major motivators of employees smoking.

Pearson et al.

Pearson (2012), however, point out that employees who smoke in the workplace are more likely to get sick from the smoke than non-smokers (secondary smoking).

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Data Collection Method

Secondary data collection was used to review different models of occupational and personal health risks factors.

All work-related databases and terminologies were gathered using the PubMed Database. The journal articles that dealt with specific diseases and their interaction in the workplace occupational risk factors were also identified.

Further evaluations of primary sources were done using PubMed databases.

A second stage of literature analysis was done to identify specific health hazards and health effects based on the reviews of articles that dealt with different models of health.


Schulte and colleagues (2012) found that occupational injuries and illnesses account for nearly 49000 deaths annually.

Smoking and chronic exposure account for 29% each year in global workplace environments.

Because it allows for the most accurate understanding of gaps in research, secondary data collection is being increasingly used in current medical research.

Rushton (2000) and Betts (2000) both point out that secondary data collection has its benefits and drawbacks.

A literature review can be used to determine whether it is possible to conduct longitudinal or international comparative research.

A regular or continuous survey like official professional registers or government censuses can provide sufficient data to analyse a trend of evolution, depending on the topic. These surveys are routinely performed and keep the information up-to-date on a daily basis.

Smith and DeJoy (2012) note that World Values Survey is an empirical source of data that provides information on the majorities of the population and factors that impact them.

This means that research done without reviewing longitudinal studies is often lacking the power and relevance of the latest information.

It is easier to review literature as a source for secondary data, as it is easily accessible and provides a summary of a new study.

Also, (2009) indicate that secondary data use is detrimental because of a lack in the quality of the data presented. This is due to primary data collection being done with a clear idea in mind.

Initiative and intervention strategies to reduce smoking effects in chronic conditions

Halperin (2011) and Howard (2011) claim that workplace environments (which include the organizational, psychological, physical and social environment) directly influence the health, safety and health behaviors of all employees.

You must ensure that your workplace is free of health-related hazards and safe.

Baicker (2011) and Cutler (2011) point out that both individuals and organizations can use a number of strategies to make sure that the workplace is safe.

To help smokers take responsibility for their own health, it is possible to train the community on the harmful effects of smoking and to share this information with non-smokers in the workplace.

Organizational management should establish regulations and rules to minimize the risks, such as allowing smoking in public areas away from residential areas or offices (Seixas & Checkoway – 1995).

These rules should be enforced with care to prevent employees from being exposed to any health risk.


There are many factors that affect the vulnerability of workers to occupational hazards.

These characteristics can include a wide variety of chronic illnesses, which may vary depending on the age.

Another study found that workplaces often have co-existing health risks, such as cold or dusty environments. However, continued employment is essential for good health.

The development of any health risk factor like smoking can impact the performance and well-being.


Epidemiologic approaches towards violence and injury.

Epidemiologic Reviews 34(1):1-3.

Laws governing booster seats: Is it effective for all children?

Injury Prevention Journal, 17, 233-237.

Occupational epidemiology and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (60(04), 97–103.

Future needs in occupational epidemiology for extremely low frequency electromagnetic and magnetic fields: Review of the literature and recommendations.

Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 66(2), 72–80.

New advances in the identification of beryllium sensitization.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7, 115-124.

Preventing accidental injuries to children younger than 15 years old in the outdoors: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of educational programs.

Injury Prevention, 18(2) 113-123.

Collecting data for occupational epidemiologic studies–Results based on a survey in the opean sector.

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 26(4), 317-321.

Interactions of occupational and individual risk factors in workplace health and safety.

American Journal of Public Health 102(3): 434-448.

Exposure assessment in industry-specific retrospective occupational epidemiology research.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 52(10): 625-633.

The American occupational injury: An analysis using data from General Social Survey (GSS) to identify risk factors.

Journal of Safety Research 43(1):67-74.

International validation and development of a tool (ODIT), Characteristics national registries for occupational disease.

BMC Health Services Research 9/194.

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