BIOL2011 Fundamentals Of Biology

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Select one from paracrine signalling or endocrine signalsling and briefly describe the process.

Choose a representative signal molecular from the chosen pathway. Indicate its function, the cell type it is made in, and the specific way it acts as a signalling molecules, along with the receptor it binds.


Different signals are supposed be transmitted to different parts.

This can only be done with the assistance of the circulatory systems.

Endocrine signaling pathway, which is the process of releasing signals from different specialized cells into the bloodstream, is what makes this possible (Lynch & Adams 2014). The blood stream then distributes these signals to various parts of the body.

Hormones refer to signals that are secreted by one part and then distributed to others.

The hormones produced in the human body are produced by the endocrine cells.

Hypothalamus, thyroid, pituitary, and the gonads are all examples of glands.

Each gland produces its own hormones.

Growth hormones are released by the pituitary.

Growth hormones are responsible for promoting growth.

Different studies show that the effects on the endocrine signals pathways occur slowly (Cantley (2014)).

According to studies, the slow response is due to the distance hormones travel.

Another reason for the slow response is that hormones are diluted in blood after transportation. The low concentrations of the hormones also contribute to slow responses.

This is the reason the endocrine signals pathways are different than the paracrine, which has high concentrations of ligands.

Although the effects of the hormones have a slow rate of action, they can last for a very long time.

The Representative Molecule

Hormones make up the representative molecules within the endocrine-signaling pathways.

There are many hormones within the body, but I will be using insulin for this assignment.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The islets and Langerhans are special units of the pancreas.

One unit, known as the beta cells, is also part of the islets at Langerhans.

Cantley (2014) says that insulin is secreted primarily by beta cells.

The hormone is normally released by the pancreas. It then gets distributed through blood to the rest of your body.

While the hormone can have many functions, the main function is to regulate the body’s use of carbohydrates.

The end product of carbohydrates metabolism, glucose is used by cells for fuel. Without insulin, cells might not use glucose as a fuel and could suffer from malfunctioning.

Tyrosine kinase acts as the insulin receptor.

Insulin is known to bind to receptors and send the message to cells.

The receptor contains two copies of the proteins chains that link together to form the receptors site, which attach to insulin.

The insulin receptor’s role is to transmit the message from insulin into cells. However, it doesn’t take part in signal transduction.

Refer to

Adipokines control insulin secretion: evidence currently available for adipocyte/beta cell hormonal signalling in metabolic balance.

Branched-chain amino acids in metabolic signalling, insulin resistance.

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