BIOLOGY 20 General Biology

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Microscopy uses tissue staining as a supplement to microscopy to increase contrast in the microscopic view.

Both dyes and stains are frequently used in biology (Alturkistani Tashkandi Mohammedsaleh 2016,).

Because some stains can penetrate cell walls, tissue staining allows scientists to see cell elements and highlight their outlines.

It helps scientists distinguish between dead and living cells.



You can stain your sample in three ways: simple staining or differential staining. Special or structural straining is another type.

Simple staining involves soaking the sample in dye solution and then rinsing it. Finally, observations are made.

This is a one-step process that only uses one dye. It can be used to better understand morphology, demonstrate the cellular content of exudates, and explore the intracellular locations of bacteria.

For staining most bacteria, you can use basic stains like Gram safranin and Gram crystal violet. (Beech. Noimark. Page. Noor. Allan & Parkin. 2015).

Two or more stains can be used in differential staining to allow cells to be classified into different types.

This type of staining often provides additional information about the characteristics and thickness of the cell wall, in addition to allowing for observation of cell morphology.

You can use it to differentiate bacteria into two types and also the acid-fast stain to identify Mycobacterium strains from other bacteria.

A special stain is used to isolate specific microbes.

To force the dye into cells and give the color, malachite green can be used with heat.

Safranin is a counterstain that provides color to non-spore-forming microbes.

The Nissl-staining method is based upon the interactions of crucial dyes such cresyl violet or thionine and toluidineblue, as well as any other nucleic acid in cells.

This technique detects the presence of the Nissl body within the cytoplasmic neurons using paraformaldehyde frozen parts or vibratome tissues that are purple-blue stained.

Nissl stained neurons and glial tissues (Garcia -Cabezas John Barbas, Barbas, & Zikopoulos 2016).

Congo red is another stain that can be associated with Alzheimer’s.

Using Congo-red staining, beta-amyloid plaques are easily detected. Their presence together with neurofibrillary tangles and other signs of Alzheimer disease can be crucially confirmed (Ho, Troncoso Knox, Stark, & Eberhart (2014)).

Early symptoms of Alzheimer include impairment of disorientation and declarative memory loss.

The medial temporal region, more than the hippocampal form and adjacent cortex, is the primary brain structure that supports these functions.

Particularly, the CA1 region of the hippocampal is important in spatial orientation, learning, distinct memory functions, such as the retrieval remote episodic memory and the strength of developed memory (Danielson Zaremba Kaifosh Bowler Ladow & Losonczy 2016).

Congo red stain is used in the histology field to stain amyloid, which is a highly folded fibrillar protein. This deposits in extracellular spaces within organs when there are particular pathological conditions (Ho, Troncoso Knox Stark & Eberhart (2014)).

This protein increases in number and causes tissue damage, eventually leading to the death of vital organs.

Amyloid is identical in structure to cellulose, so it behaves similarly in chemical reactions.

This is a linear molecule which allows amine or azo groups of dye to form hydrogen bonds with identical hydroxyl radicals of amyloid (Ho Troncoso Knox Stark & Eberhart (2014)

It is seen as an amorphous and glassy, eosinophilic substance when it is examined in tissue stained with hematoxylin.

This can be confused by other elements, so it is necessary to recognize it.

Moreover, Congo-red-stained amyloid is pale orange-red if it is examined with frequent bright field microscopy (Ho Troncoso Knox Stark & Eberhart (2014)).

The bright field aspect is not enough to diagnose amyloid because small deposits might be difficult for the eye.

It is important to examine Congo red stained tissue sections under polarized lighting. This will allow for the distinctive apple-green birefringence which can be used to diagnose the presence of amyloid.

The standard gold test used by pathologists to find amyloid within tissues of patients with these diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is the Congo red stain.

Congo red is a marker for amyloidosis and plant and fungi cells walls, as well as the Gram-negative bacterial outer layer (Costa, et al. 2015).

Silver staining refers to Parkinson’s Disease. Sections with silver staining show all Lewy body and Lewy neuritis. (Saito and al., 2016).

While large Lewy body can be detected using acidic dyes (Saito et al., 2016), H&E routine stains do not have the ability to detect all Parkinson’s disease-related alterations.

Presently, all types of Lewy bodies have been identified with the presynaptic proteins alpha-synucleic. This makes immunocytochemical detection of alpha–synucleic the most reliable method of recognizing the entire spectrum of Parkinson’s disease-related changes.


Figure 1 Spherulites seen in Alzheimer’s tissue, hippocampal stained with Congo red or hematoxylin

a) Congo red-stained spherulite that causes apple-green birefringence with progressively crossed Polarizers.

(a-c), A typical example of the senile plaques found in Alzheimer’s.

d. Spherulite structures (solid, arrow-heads), in the same tissue section.

e) Crossed polarizers cause apple-green birefringence.

All parts had the unstained spherulites distributed in the granule cells layer (vertical arrow), which is part of the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as a surrounding band in Ammon’s horn within the pyramidal cell layers.

f) Hippocampal section showing a darker Congo-red stain, hematoxylinpositive cells (vertical) and spherulites that notably lack affinity (solid arrow-heads).

g) Same region with fully crossed polarizers.

In patients with Alzheimer’s and those suffering from cerebral amyloid angiopathy, the cerebrospinal fluid contains low levels of beta-amyloid (Merlini & Wanner, 2016).

Figure 2 – Section stained with Nissl

The darkening of cresyl violet gives the nissl substance, which is uneven endoplasmicreticulum, its name (Flanagan Sonnen Keene Keene, Montine, 2018,).

Furthermore, nissl stained portions show dark granules in low accolade areas that contain neurons whose cell bodies are made up of a lot irregular endoplasmic.reticulum.

Higher accolades make the hippocampal formation’s granular-molecular layer patterns more transparent.

Dendrites originating from dark cells bodies fill the areas of light violet, where they form many synaptic networks and axons.

Figure 3: Silver stains.

Lewy body is a normal type of brainstem.

A Lewy cortical type Lewy with a pale color.

Lewy neuritis CA2 section of the hippocampus

Medulla medulla: Intraneuritic Lewy.


Tissue staining allows you to see structures in biological tissues.

There are many types of staining depending on the location and type of disease.

Tissue organization under microscopy shows the relationship between cell function and organ function. Therefore, histology encourages the study at every level of cell biology.

Histology is essential for diagnosing a condition.

Refer to

Histological staining: A literature review and case analysis.

Global journal for health science, 8(3) 72.

An investigation into the heavy metal tolerance of bacteria isolated form textile effluent.

Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 7, 62-71.

A copolymer emulsion was developed that incorporates crystal violet, methyleneblue, and safraninO. It also includes the development of an antimicrobial spray.

RSC Advances, 5 (33), 26364-263375.

Secretion systems in Gram negative bacteria: structural and mechanistic insight.

Nature Reviews Microbiology 13, p. 343.

Sublayer-specific coding dynamics in spatial navigation and learning within the hippocampal region CA1.


In Molecular Pathology, Second Edition (pp.

A cytological feature-based algorithm for distinguishing neurons, glia, endothelial and glial cells in cerebral cortex.

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 10,107.

The Eyes of Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease patients are not able identify Beta?Amyloid and Phospho?Tau deposits that look similar to those found in the brain.

Brain Pathology 24(1), 25-32.

Tau pathology-dependent remodeling in cerebral arteries precedes Alzheimer’s-related microvascular cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy.

The erythrocytes from Parkinson’s disease patients in early stages show a high level of oxidation and interaction between DJ-1 protein and the 20S proteasome.

Scientific reports, 6, 3793.

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