Discuss Sociology. There are three main types of models of Health: the Social Model of Health (Biomedical Model of Health), the Ottawa Charter of Health Promotion and the Social Model of Health.
The development society has a great need for healthcare.
The models of Health are a set of concepts that defines health (Bowling 2014).
The Social Model of Health is one type of model.
These models aid in the development and promotion of healthcare in the community.
The Social Model of Health explains that health is affected by a range of social factors.
The factors include personal, social and organizational factors as well as political and economic ones.
The Biomedical model of health states that every health issue affecting the body is due to abnormalities within the body.
Medical help can treat diseases caused by abnormalities in bodily functions.
According to the Ottawa Charter, health is essential for the survival of the community and not just the physical wellbeing of the individual. Therefore, health includes the lifestyle and medical facilities available to the person.
The Biomedical model of health is examined and evaluated in this essay.
The Biomedical model of health considers illness to be the result of malfunctioning of bodily functions.
The model employs a variety determinants to assess the health of a person in order to justify their treatment (Halfon, et al.
The Biomedical Theory of Health treats each person as a sick, physical entity based on the symptoms.
The Biomedical Theorie of Health has many points.
First, we must determine what is causing the illness.
The Biomedical model suggests that illness can be caused by an external pathogen or some physiological changes (Deacon, 2013).
The model suggests that pathogenic invades and physiological changes can cause illness by affecting the body’s functions.
There may be hormonal imbalances or chemical changes, genetic predispositions, pathogens like bacteria, and/or genetic predispositions that cause the disease.
In the second, victims are not responsible for their own illness in the model. This is because the illness is due to external factors that affect the internal functions of their body (de Brouwer und al.
It does not consider other causal factors, which could have contributed to the disease, but as a glitch with the bodily functions that caused it.
The third factor is the treatment of illness.
Based on the signs and symptoms displayed by the patient, different types of medical treatments can be used to treat the condition.
Based on the functional needs of the patient, various treatments are suggested by the model. These include medication-based treatment, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
The model relies entirely on the skilled medical practitioners who are trained in treating the disease.
The Biomedical model says that illness and health are qualitative opposites.
The model shows that a person can either be healthy or sick. There are no grey areas.
There is no in between condition for a person, from health to sickness or vice versa.
The Model follows Dualism’s model of the mind/body.
Dualism claims that the mind and body exist on two different planes of existence, and they do not influence each other’s behavior (Phillips and Beretta).
The mind can be considered an entity operating in a different plane than the body. This does not in any way affect the functions and functioning of the body.
Mind is an abstract entity which can influence emotions and thoughts (Lovallo, 2015).
Contrary to popular belief, the body is the physical entity of bones, muscles and skins that performs the physical functions.
This model shows that health problems are only related to the body’s physical form and do not affect the mind.
Traditional biomedical models state that although a physical illness may be due to psychological causes, no psychological problems can cause physical illness.
For example, a lack of psychological issues can lead to life-threatening conditions like AIDS or Cancer (Bowling 2014.
The Model suggests that any treatment of any type of physical illness should be based in science and medicine.
When treating the body’s disease, the patient’s psychological condition should also be considered.
According to the Parsons’ sick roles, the Biomedical model is valid.
Talcott Parsons, a researcher, created the Sick Role model in 1951. He stated that a person with a chronic illness must have certain roles in order for it to be considered a sick role.
To be considered sick, one must adhere to certain rules.
This method considers the sanctioned deviation as the first.
Heidarnia and Heidarnia 2016, respectively, state that an individual is expected to carry out their daily duties in society. Inability to do so is considered deviation.
The society accepts a person who is sick if they do not follow their daily roles. This is what is known as sanctioned deviation.
The two main tenets of this system are that a person is not responsible for their illness and that they must take immediate measures to get well so that they can continue to fulfill their daily duties.
This model supports Biomedical Modell of Health, which views the physical illness as a physical effect on the body that is independent of the mind.
The theory states that the main motive of the sick person is to get treatment from a qualified practitioner.
The theories also discredit any influence of mind on the illness of the body.
The dualalism of the two entities that are based on the model negates any effect of the mind upon the illness or treatment of a body (Heidarnia, Heidarnia 2016.
There are many criticisms of the models from other theories about health. These theories consider health to include the total wellbeing of an individual and the importance lifestyle plays in maintaining a healthy community.
The Biomedical Theory is subject to a variety of criticisms, including Iatrogenesisis. Social Model of Health. McKeown’s View. Marxist View. WHO definition of Health.
These theories expose the flaws of the Biomedical Model.
The models also reveal the flaws in Biomedical Theory’s dualistic concept that is used to justify the diagnosis and treatment of patients.
Iatrogenesis refers to the effect of medicine on the person’s body.
This theory accounts for any changes in the human body which could be caused by the treatment of the physician increasing the issues of patients (Quarta and al.
This is in sharp contrast to the Biomedical model. The model doesn’t take into consideration the mistakes made by doctors.
Iatrogenic diseases that affect the body are not due to any pathogenic or functional malfunction, but a mistake made by the medical practitioner who is supposed be treating the person.
These illnesses are completely contrary to the Biomedical Models of Health.
The Social model for health simply states that the individual’s health depends on many factors like their environment, personal habits and income.
It is the state of a person’s overall health, in terms of their lifestyle. This is what is considered to be the cause of illness (Hankivsky and al.
Social models, unlike the Biomedical Model, view illness as a part of society and its effect on the person.
The Social model does not consider illness an external influence that the body has on it, but rather as a result of the lifestyle of the person.
It recognizes that the causes of diseases that affect people differ depending on lifestyle choices and other factors like economic factors or hereditary traits.
It is a clear violation to the Biomedical model of Health. This allows it to answer questions Biomedical cannot.
Biomedical model does not justify the fact that a large proportion of people in Asian countries have inherent myopia.
Social Model also considers health and disease as relative conditions in the society.
McKeon’s view was based upon the two books that he published, The Modern Rise of Population & The Role of Medicine.
McKeown claims that rapid population growth was caused by the moral decline after the industrial revolution. It improved the lives and economic status of people.
McKeown suggests that an illness can be caused not only by the disease itself, but also by the lifestyle of the person (McKeown 2014).
Poor hygiene and poor lifestyles are responsible for many of the diseases he describes.
His work argues that medical intervention does not have to be done in order to treat certain diseases. Instead, it is necessary for economic improvement and a more healthy lifestyle.
This is contrary to the Biomedical model’s assertion that a person can’t be held responsible if they have a disease. However, a person’s lifestyle is entirely their choice (Rigg Engelman, Ramirez 2018).
McKeown feels that the Biomedical model fails to recognize the importance of nutrition in illness.
Marxist Model of Health uses a sociomedical approach to the topic of health. The economic divide is blamed for the occurrence of health-related issues in the community.
According to this theory, poor people suffer from many ailments when they do not have proper access to nutrition, lifestyle and hygiene.
It is possible for a wealthy person to get cancer treated and diagnosed early.
Most people in poverty are late to receive a diagnosis because they don’t consider the implications of their economic situation.
Even if they have been diagnosed, many cannot afford the expensive treatment.
This goes against the Biomedical model that each patient must be treated by an experienced medical professional due to the limited resources.
According to WHO’s 1948 definition, health is “A state that has all the physical, mental, and social well-being of a person and does not include the absence or infirmity of any disease” (World Health Organization 2017).
This definition defines health as the total psychological and physiological wellbeing of an individual.
Contrary to the Dualist Biomedical model of Health, which includes the mind and body as a measure of health, this definition is not inclusive.
This definition is based on the fact that psychological well-being can have a positive impact on a person’s physical health. (World Health Organization 2017).
Many cases prove that the biomedical approach to health is outdated in today’s modern world.
The Biomedical model of health doesn’t consider anxiety and depression as illnesses, even though a large proportion of people suffer from them (Sarafino and Smith 2014).
The importance of hygiene can be seen when we compare the incidence of waterborne diseases in wealthy and poor countries.
While the Biomedical model does not support the importance of lifestyle in causing diseases, there are studies that link a variety lifestyle factors to diseases such as tobacco smoking to cancer, obesity to heart problems, stress to diabetes and stress to heart disease (Yamauchi, Kadowaki 2013,).
Because it only focuses on treatment and illness and not the psychological aspects, the Biomedical model does not allow for the general access to treatment.
There are many cases such as those of HIV-infected, uninfected children living in Africa. This is in direct violation of the law because they have the virus and aren’t affected by it.
In the essay, the Biomedical model is a model that treats the ill as a sick person who has been removed from society and gives the measures necessary to ensure proper treatment.
Parson’s Sick model supports this model. It outlines the roles an ill person must play according to social norms.
Other models like Marxism, Social Model, McKeown’s View and Iatrogenesis have harshly criticised this model. They also question the WHO definition of health which includes lifestyle as a determining element of health.
It is difficult to ignore the influence of psychology and mental well-being on the body in today’s world.
For modern society, the Biomedical model is no longer relevant.
Afran L., Garcia Knight M., Nduati E. Urban, B.C. Heyderman R.S.
Rowland?Jones (S.L.), 2014.
The growing number of HIV-infected uninfected children is a sign that the population is becoming more vulnerable.
Research methods for health: Examining health and health services.
McGraw-Hill Education, UK
Experiences of occupational physicians in the implementation of indicated prevention for long-term sick absence.
A critical assessment of the validity and utility of the biomedical model mental disorder: Its effects on psychotherapy research.
Clinical Psychology Review 33(7), pp.846-861.
Understanding health and social services.
Marxist approach to medical care.
PubMed – NCBI.
Halfon N., Larson K. Lu M., Tullis E., and Russ S.
Lifecourse health development: the past, present, and future.
Maternal and infant health journal, 18(2) pp. 344-365.
The odd couple: Integrating biomedical and intersectal approaches to address inequities in health.
Global health action 10(sup2) p.1326686.
Heidarnia (M.A.) and Heidarnia (A.), 2016.
The Sick Role of Physicians and Patients and a Critical Assessment of Its Application to Our Understanding of the Relationship Between Doctors and Patients.
Biomedicine: A Novelty, 4(3) pp.126-134.
Stress and health: Biological as well as psychological interactions.
The role and purpose of medicine: dream, mirage, nemesis or dream?
Princeton University Press.
Phillips K.G., Beretta A., Whitaker H.A.
Mind and Brain: Towards understanding dualism.
Brain, mind, and consciousness in the history neuroscience (pp.
Mind and Brain: Understanding dualism.
In Brain, Mind and Consciousness in the History of Neuroscience (pp.
Quarta G. Papadakis M. Di Donna P., Maurizi N. Maurizi, N. Iacovoni A. Gavazzi A. Senni M. e Olivotto I. 2017, 2017.
Grey zones in cardiomyopathies – defining the boundaries between genetic disease and iatrogenic.
Nature Reviews Cardiology 14(2): pp.102-112.
Rigg K.K., Engelman D. and Ramirez J., 2018.
A Community-Based Approach for Primary Health Care.
Dimensions of Community Based Projects in Health Care (pp.
John Wiley & Sons.
World Health Organization.
The principles of the WHO Constitution.
Yamauchi T. and Kadowaki T. (2013).
Adiponectin receptor is a key player in healthy longevity and obesity-related diseases.
Cell metabolism 17(2), pp.185–196.