NURS 237 Nursing Research

Question:

Discussion about Nursing Research, Treatment of depression disorders, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

Answer:

Medication Research

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SL No.

Drug

Generic name/Brand Name

Classification

Therapeutic use

Act Now

Initiation

Durability

Bronchophane (PO)

Antitussives

The structure of opioids is devoid of analgesic effects and acts directly on the cough center in the medulla. This causes suppression of the cough reflex.

15 mg

15-30 minutes

Unknown

3-6 hours

Allergy relief for chronic urticaria and seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoitis.

30 minutes

4-8 hours

24 hour

Celexa/ Citalopram Hydrobromide/ Celexa

Antidepressants, Selective Serotonin Ruptake Inhibitors (SSRIs).

Treatment of depressive disorders such as Premenstrual dysphoric Disorder (PMDD).

Panic disorder.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Posttraumatic stress disorder, (PTSD).

Social anxiety disorder (socialphobia)

1-4 weeks

Unknown

Unknown

Management and treatment of Actinic Keatoses, Osteoarthritis at the knee.

Prostaglandins inhibit inflammatory markers, which can cause pain and inflammation.

Unknown

10-20 Hours

Unknown

Anticonvulsants, GABA analogues

Adjunct or holistic treatments for disorders such as Partial seizures.

400 mg

2-2-4 hours

8 hour

Unknown

1-3 Weeks

1-3 Weeks

Selective Serotonin Receptor Antagonist (SSRA).

It is used for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting after radiation exposure.

Apart from the blocking of the chemoreceptor trigger zones in the CNS, it also blocks the effects of the serotonin receptor sites at the 5-HT3 terminals in the vagal nervous terminals.

24 mg

15-30 minutes

4-8 hours

Hydrocortisone topical

Mild topical corticosteroid

This medication is used in the management of adrenocortical impairment. It can also be used in a variety of disorders such as Inflammatory, Allergic and Neoplastic, Autoimmune disorders, and Septic shock.

Inhibits inflammation and normal immune responses. It also suppresses adrenal function and has intense metabolic effects.

10 mg in 1 G

Unknown

2 to 3 hours

1.25-1.25 days

Vitamin D (PO).

This product is used for the prevention or treatment of Vitamin D deficiency.

The liver and kidneys are activated to create vitamin D3 active form. This facilitates intestinal absorption and activation.

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

Treatment and prophylaxis for venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

5 mg

36-72 hours

5-7 days

2-5 days

This is used in the treatment of pain and inflammation that are associated with ocular surgeries.

By reducing inflammation markers, it can be done.

Unknown

Unknown

Unknown

Proton Pump Inhibitors

This treatment is very effective for treating erosive esophagitis, GERD, and other pathologic gastric hypersecretory diseases.

It helps to reduce the relapse rate of both nighttime and daytime symptoms of heartburn in GERD patients.

Gaztric acidic pH in the presence of which can bind to an enzyme and prevent the transport of hydrogen ions through the gastric lumen.

40 mg

2.5 hour

Unknown

1 week

Topical anesthetic

Responsible for relieving minor skin disorders such as burns/bites, insect bites/stings/dermatitis, hemorhoids, and other forms of irritation.

It is done by interfering with the initiation or conduction of sensory nerve impulses, particularly those that carry the nociceptive stimuli.

About 1 minute

Unknown

15-20 min

Drug

Teaching patient

Abverse reaction

Contraindications

Be careful

Interactions

Follow the drug protocol as directed. Refer immediately to your physician if symptoms include arrhythmia, involuntary movements of the eyes or limbs.

Headache, Dizziness or Fatigue, Headache, Dry mouth, Abdominal pain and Extrapyramidal reactions

Hypersensitivity, Congenital QT syndrome, Concurrent administration of apomorphine

Hepatic impairment and Abdominal surgery, Lactation, Pregnancy, and Children 3 Years

Increased chance of severe hypotension, and possible loss of consciousness

Follow the prescribed medication regimen. Caution for adrenal insufficiency if you suddenly stop taking medication. Possible effects on your body image

Depression, hypertension, and cataracts. Weight loss or weight gain.

Active untreated infection during lactation

Chronic treatment, Lowest dose for the longest time and in the lowest dosage possible

Additive hypokalemia due to additive loop diuretics such as amphotericin B, thiazide, and amphotericin C can occur.

Vitamin D (PO)

Compliance with medication, Review of diet modifications with patient, Caution regarding self medication, Avoidance concurrent use of magnesium antacids, Evaluation of follow-up programs for evaluating progress

Hypercalcemia. Headache. Conjunctivitis. Arrhythmia. Anorexia. Polyuria. Muscle pain.

Hypersensitivity, Vitamin D toxicity, Malabsorption issues

Consumption of Vitamin D supplements, or magnesium containing anti-acidics concurrently

Correct procedure and frequency for instilling eye drops. Wearing contact lenses during application is not recommended. Notification to the doctor if there is irritation, redness or swelling.

Increased intraocular Pressure, cataract, corneal Oedema, Infection, Photophobia

Eyes and surrounding structures are susceptible to active mycobacterial, viral, fungal or viral infection.

Safety of pregnant and nursing women, children, and infants

Follow the prescribed medication. Avoid simultaneous consumption of alcohol, NSAIDs and other gastric irritants.

Headache, diarrhea and flatulence. Hyperglycemia, hypermagnesemia. Bone fracture.

Hypersensitivity, Unnecessary pregnancy use, Discontinuance of breast-feeding by lactating mothers in order to avoid serious adverse reactions in infants

Patients taking higher doses of medication than prescribed for a longer period of time are at greater risk of fractrure.

Avoid overuse. Caution. Refer to your physician if you experience erythema.

Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis – burning, irritation or oedema, stinging

Hypersensitivity

For children under 2 years, avoid application to areas that are large or abraded.

Recurrent use of cholinesterase inhibitors causes an increase in the toxicity of ester types agents

SL No.

Disease

Pathophysiology

Sign and Symptoms

Findings from physical assessments

Spinal stenosis

A narrowing of the spine’s open spaces that causes pressure on the spinal chord and the nerves going down the spine to reach the arms and legs. This is most common in the lower back and neck regions due to osteoarthritis and wear and tear of the spine (Costandi and al., 2015).

Age 50+, Osteoarthritis. Herniated disks. Tumors. Paget’s disease. Spinal injury. Thinened ligaments.

Sciatica, Foot injury, Loss of bladder control or bowel control. Difficulty walking or standing. Worsening balance.

Paralysis, weakness and paralysis.

Digestive disorder that causes heartburn or acid indigestion. It is caused by the lower esophageal (LES) which allows stomach contents to travel backwards and flow up towards the upper esophageal (El-Serag and al., 2013).

Obesity, Hiatal shenia, Pregnancy and Asthma. Smoking, Scleroderma. Dry mouth. Diabetes. Delayed emptying stomach.

Heartburn, Dysphagia (heartburn), Dysphagia/dry cough, Chest pains, Sore throats, Acid reflux, Sensation that there is a lump in your throat

Acid regurgitation: Pain or difficulty swallowing, Bad breath and chest pain

SL No.

Disease

Nursing Intervention

Teaching

Spinal stenosis

Prescription medications to relieve pain, application of hot or cool packs to reduce excess weight, diet and nutrition. Walkers and canes are used as aidive devices to maintain stability while walking.

X-rays, Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI), Computed Tomography(CT) Scan

It is a therapeutic exercise that builds strength and endurance, maintains stability and flexibility of spine, and improves balance.

The symptoms that first appear, the severity of the pain, family history, any underlying medical problems, current medications and supplements.

Encouragement to make lifestyle changes such as losing weight, quitting smoking or reducing alcohol consumption.

X-rays of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopy.

Lifestyle and dietary changes can help reduce the damage to the lining.

Avoid eating or drinking foods and drinks that may weaken your LES.

When lying down, raise your head.

Medical treatment or medication, Family history, Symptoms experienced. Severity of symptoms. Post meal hour experience. Information about your body weight.

References

Lumbar spinal stenosis: Therapeutic options review.

Pain Practice, 15(1) 68-81.

difluprednate ophthalmic.

Warfarin

An update on the epidemiology gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: A systematic review.

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